Interaction

What do students need and want? As educators, professors grapple with this question for much of our professional lives. 

One way of answering the question is to focus on a list of core competencies such as Tony Wagner’s seven survival skills  which include critical thinking, problem solving, and collaboration.

I have been thinking of more direct ways of answering the question. In other words, what do students need to achieve those core competencies? My answers seem to always lead back to one word – “interaction“. Specifically, three categories of interaction:  interaction with the course subject matter, interaction with the professor and interaction with other students.

Interaction with the course subject matter. Instead of learning just pure theory, most students want to interact with the subject matter of a course by applying it, experiencing it, and/or critiquing  it.  Applying it could be done by working on case problems or analyzing a current issue or event. Experiencing it could be working in a relevant industry for a co-op work term or a clinic such as the Law and Business Clinic at the Ted Rogers School of Management. Critiquing it could be challenging students to question underlying assumptions or widely accepted beliefs in class or online discussions.

Interaction with the professor. Traditional lecturing to students – or better known as the “sage on the stage” (SOTS) – is not interaction in the literal sense. It usually involves one-sided communication by a professor to a group of students in a lecture hall. SOTS worked great for Shakespeare’s Henry V rousing his troops at Agincourt or Steve Jobs introducing the original iPhone.  However, SOTS often does not work well in our reality of multi-hour classes over a full semester covering subject that is not obviously interesting. 

In and outside of the classroom, students want to have mutual interaction with their professors. That interaction could be speaking with students in small groups as they are working on an in-class activity. It could also be providing direct feedback to students either in class or online in a discussion forum.

Interaction with other students. Working collaboratively is widely recognised as a key skill that students need for success. One common way of developing this skill is to have student work in groups for assignments and presentations. Another way is to have students discuss case problems in informal small groups before having a full class discussions. Another thought is to provide students with some guidance on how to work well in a group. I tell my students that work for a group project does not necessarily need to be allocated such that each person’s contribution is the same and equal. The allocation should recognise each person’s strengths and weaknesses.

Interaction. A simple, yet important and complicated word.

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Parents Talking to Professors

Given the growing prevalence of so-called helicopter parents, the meeting of parents and professors has become more common.  Although I have never had the pleasure yet of speaking to a parent of one of my students, I have witnessed such an encounter and have heard anecdotes from colleagues. Such meetings are rarely productive and usually do not end well.

Students are adults, albeit most of them are young adults. They should be left to manage their lives including school. Parents should support them with guidance and encouragement. Unless there is a physical or mental health concern, I do not see any need for a parent to contact their adult child’s professor. 

If you are a concerned parent, please read this New York Times article before contacting a professor.

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The Less I Talk, The More Effective I Am

I have come to the realization: The less I talk, the more effective I am.  Don’t get me wrong.  I love the sound of my voice just as much as any other professor.  I also have a vast store of pearls of wisdom to pass on to my student – at least I think I do.  I love the rapture and attention of being a “sage on the stage”.  The sage is great for inspirational occasions such as the first class of a semester or a TED talk.  However, for every other class of the semester where the nitty gritty of a course is taught, just being a sage does not cut it.

To teach someone to find their way out of a forest, you can either personally guide them out or give them the tools (like a map and a compass) to figure out how to find their own way out.  By giving them just the tools, the person will likely struggle, at least at first, to learn how to read the map and use the compass. They will likely take a few a wrong turns or even go around in circles.  They will learn from their failures and hopefully and eventually find their way out. Just guiding the person out of the forest would be quicker and less frustrating for everyone. However, the person who finds their own way out will be much better equipped next time they are lost in that forest or any other forest.  That person’s mind has “grown” from the experience.

This “growth mindset” is based on the research of Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University.  According to Dr. Dweck, our intellectual abilities are capable of growth when are minds are challenged with difficult tasks which involve struggle and failure. We learn more from failure than success.

Instead of being an all-knowing sage, my role is to encourage a “growth mindset” in my students. How do I do that?

  • Lecture less, teach more: I minimize the amount of time I “lecture” to my class as a whole. I explain key concepts to the whole class so that students have just enough knowledge to attempt case problem exercises in small groups.  That lecturing time is even less if I am using a “flipped classroom” format (see my blog posts of 16 Sept. 2013 and 25 October 2013).  My “teaching” is my direct interactions with students in their small groups as they are working on the case problems.
  • Give opportunities for struggle and failure: Give opportunities to students to take intellectual risks in the classroom.  I ask my students to prepare full written answers to case problems in small groups.  I walk around and listen to their discussions. Sometimes, I see blank looks on their faces. I watch them struggle to figure out an answer.  I strategically intervene with guidance and clues.  Students share their answers with the whole class by posting on Socrative.com (see my blog post of 10 Sept. 2013).  Sometimes, I ask my students to evaluate each other’s posted answers by way of a vote using Socrative.  I then critique the top 2 to 4 answers.
  • Create a safe environment for failure: Students are obsessed with marks and, consequently, they fear failure. It should be made clear to them that discussions and activities in the classroom do not negatively impact their grades, but instead help them build the skills necessary to succeed in the course, especially the exams.
  • Praise process, instead of results: This is something that I need to work on. Like most people, my reflex reaction is to praise results by saying, for example, “Great work!” or “Excellent answer!” To encourage a growth mindset, I should be saying phrases such as “Excellent analysis of this problem” or “I like how you worked through the issues in this problem”.

So, less is more.  Who knew??

Wayland

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Follow up: Research Wiki

In a previous post, I talked about trying “research wikis” for an assignment in one of my classes last semester.  I wanted to test the thinking that, since information is now a commodity, what matters is what you are able to do with information. So what happened?

A very good amount of research materials was accumulated in all three wikis – one for each of the three assignment topics.   The materials were contributed by a good number of different students from different groups.  (It was a group assignment, by the way.) That shows that many  of the students put in a good amount of effort researching their topics.  I did not see any indication of “free riders” relying on the research of others, without contributing any research of their own.

Since every group had access to the same research materials, did that even out the quality of the submitted assignments?  Absolutely not.  As with any other assignment, there was a full range of quality.  I marked assignments that were well written, insightful, and demonstrated a clear understanding of the subject matter.  On the other end of the spectrum, there were assignments that required a good stiff drink for me to get through.  Those assignments merely cobbled together a mish mash of various bits of information without any shred of understanding of the subject matter.

What this demonstrates to me is that, in the information age that we are living in, what really matters most is what we are able to do with the wealth of information available at our fingertips.  We need to able to not just access information, but understand it, evaluate it, critique it, extrapolate from it, build on it, etc. These are the skills that we should be developing in our students.

Wayland

 

 

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Reflective Prof YouTube Channel

I have created YouTube channel with a series of short videos on various legal and tax concepts. These videos are animated PowerPoints with narration (by me). Check it out.

Here is one of the videos:

 

 

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Research Wiki

Everyone says that information is now a commodity and that what matters is what you are able to do with information. Almost any information (but not all) is only a few Google searches away. With that thought in mind, I designed a new assignment for my post-grad international business students.

This assignment requires my students to research and write about one of three current international business law issues. The assignment is up to 5 pages long and can be done either individually or groups of two or three. Nothing out of the ordinary so far.

Here’s the new twist. The research for each of the three topics will be done collaboratively using a “research wiki”. I set up a “research wiki” for each topic which is essentially an online discussion forum. Students are expected to post any thing they find that is a useful research source such as cases, legislation, articles, blogs, books, etc. All student have access to all of the content in the wikis. In preparing their assignments, students may rely only on research materials cited in the wiki for their topic. In other words, if it’s not in the wiki, they can’t use it.

I am very curious to see how this will work out.  Will most students contribute to the wikis?  Or will only some contribute and the rest get a free ride?  Will there be a spirit of collaboration and community? Or will there be resentment and tension?

Wayland

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New Semester, New Challenges

This semester will present some new challenges for me.  These challenges will definitely be a lot of work, but, hopefully, will also be fun and interesting. I am doing three “firsts” this semester:

  1. For the first time, I am teaching a course that I designed from top to bottom. The course is called Finance & Investment Law.  In the first class, I told my students that I take both full responsibility and credit for this course.  I love having control over the both the design and delivery, but it is a lot more work and more pressure.
  2. For the first time, I am teaching a course at a university. Up until now, I have only taught at the college level.  Here, in Canada, post-secondary education is organized in two groups:  universities and colleges.  Universities focus on under-graduate, graduate, and post-graduate degree programs and research.  College typically provide applied education in diploma, certificate and, some times, degree programs.  I have a feeling that the teaching challenges at the under-graduate university level are very similar to those at colleges.  At my first university class week, I was pleasantly surprised that most of the class arrived at least 10 minutes early and many students took copious notes throughout the class.  I can get used to that.
  3. For the first time, I am teaching a course in a post-graduate program.  The program is a post-graduate certificate in international business. The students in this program already have at least a bachelor’s degree.  I am impressed with how engaged and enthusiastic my students are.

This semester will be very busy and professionally challenging – in a good kind of way. 🙂

Wayland

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New Year’s Resolution

I recently attended a faculty meeting at which a TED talk by education guru Tony Wagner was shown. Wagner spoke about 7 skills that students need to succeed in today’s society:

1. Problem-solving and critical thinking
2. Collaboration across networks and leading by influence
3. Agility and adaptability
4. Initiative and entrepreneurship
5. Effective written and oral communication
6. Accessing and analyzing information
7. Curiosity and imagination.

The $64,000 question is how do we, as educators, go about teaching students these skills.  There are no obvious or easy answers.  I believe the first step is to develop and apply all of these same skills ourselves in continually evolving and reinventing our teaching.  This new year, I resolve to:

  • Critically evaluate my teaching approaches and actively solve identified problems.
  • Collaborate with colleagues by sharing ideas and materials.
  • Be agile and adaptable to students’ different learning styles.
  • Initiate change where change is needed in course design and delivery.
  • Always be clear and transparent in my communications with students.
  • Seek out information from influential educators such as Tony Wagner.
  • Apply curiosity and imagination in my teaching.

Happy new year!

Wayland

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Sharing

In this festive season, we freely share our good cheer and, not to mention, our wealth with others. Sharing is the one of the most valued of human qualities. Our ability to share and work cooperatively is what distinguishes us from other species. It is what allows us to achieve and build great things.

When we are but mere toddlers, we quickly learn the concept of “mine!”. Our parents then teach us that it is good to share. However, along the way to adulthood, our capitalist society and perhaps our natural tendencies kick in to instill in us the importance of private property and exclusive rights.  “Let’s share” reverts back to “Mine!”.

In our professional lives, should we freely share our ideas and work product?  It, of course, depends on the situation and your personality.  I have in the past encountered professors who take a very proprietary approach. They are extremely reluctant to share their ideas and their materials such as powerpoints and tests, unless there is a clear quid pro quo for them.  I guess these professors somehow think that this approach gives them some kind of competitive advantage.  It is all too easy to fall into the thinking that this kind of behaviour is the norm and preferred approach.

In contrast, at my current college, I freely share ideas, advice and materials with my colleagues, and vice-versa. Somehow, I think this collaborative approach benefits everyone: me, my colleagues, the college, and especially the students.  It is far better than each of us working separately in isolation.

I freely share my thoughts and experiences through this blog.  However, I admit that it is not an altogether altruistic exercise. What do I get in return?  I certainly don’t make any money from this blog.  This blog requires me to reflect on my approaches to teaching. It motivates me to develop and follow through on new ideas.  I get feedback from other educational professionals. It provides a useful reference as a written journal.  In other words, it helps me be a better educator.

Sharing is good.  Merry Christmas and happy holidays.

Wayland

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Excuses, Excuses: “I missed the exam because….”

We’ve all heard them: “My grandma died”, “I was vomiting all last night”, “My third cousin had a wedding”, “I had pink eye”, ….   If I was a grandparent of a college/university student, I would be afraid for my life around exam times. Then again, the grandparents of some students seem to have the miraculous ability to reincarnate and die many times over.

Whenever a student provides an excuse for missing an exam or missing a deadline for an assignment, as a professor, I am put in a difficult situation.  If a student’s excuse happens to be valid and honest, I do not want to be insensitive to the student’s challenges.  I am aware of the reality that many students must cope with many stresses in their school, personal and work lives. On other hand, I do not need a sixth sense to realize that too many students fabricate excuses as a part of their MO for success in school. For those students, I want to ensure that they do not get an unfair advantage relative to the other students in the class.  However, I also do not want to take on the role of Professor PI to check the veracity of students’ excuses.

It is a constant challenge to not become so jaded that I doubt the integrity of every student that has an excuse for missing an exam or assignment. Count me now as being a little more jaded. I heard an interview of Jane Collins, a nurse at the student health centre at Saint Mary’s University. After 19 years of writing sick notes for students, she recently said she had had enough. She said,

“It just seemed like there were the same students coming in all the time. Usually it’s, ‘I’ve been throwing up all night’ and they looked so well. I’m like ‘What, you’re throwing up all night? You look awesome.’ Or students say, ‘I have a really bad cold, I couldn’t possibly write my exam today and I have two tomorrow.'”

She also said she was spending at least an hour every day dealing with students requesting sick notes.

Hmmmm…

Wayland

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